A senior U.S. administration official, speaking on condition of anonymity, insisted the ultimate target was Russian Federation.
"The Chinese side expresses strong indignation over the above-mentioned unreasonable practices of the USA side", foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang told a regular press briefing. "We strongly urge the U.S.to immediately correct its mistakes and revoke the so-called sanctions". It also took part in massive Russian war games held earlier this month.
They also include 25 Russians and three Russian companies who were indicted over the past year by Russia collusion investigator Robert Mueller for their involvement in political meddling and hacking during the 2016 election.
"We will do everything to stop being dependent on the countries who behave toward their partners in this way", Lavrov said on a visit to Sarajevo.
The anti-Russian sanctions targeting China and other countries undermined global stability, Moscow said, according to AFP.
"It would be good for them to remember there is such a concept as global stability which they are thoughtlessly undermining by whipping up tensions in Russian-American ties", deputy foreign minister Sergei Ryabkov said in a statement.
"Playing with fire is silly, it can become risky", he said in a statement.
In 2017, Russian Federation sold around £11.3billion (US$15 billion) of weapons to China.
"We hope that at least this step will send a signal of our seriousness and perhaps encourage others to think twice about their own engagement with the Russian defense and intelligence sectors", another USA official said.
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He declined to answer a question whether the U.S. would be taking similar action against countries, like Turkey, that buy S-400 missile defence system.
Alexander Gabuev, head of the Russian Federation in the Asia-Pacific Program at the Carnegie Moscow Center, said the new USA measures could bring Moscow and Beijing even closer.
Security analysts in Asia said the move was largely symbolic and would only push Moscow and Beijing closer together.
The State Department also placed 33 Russian intelligence and military-linked actors on its sanctions blacklist.
The sanctions imposed Thursday include a visa ban for Li and restrict both Li and the Chinese agency, a component of the country's Central Military Commission, from engaging in transactions with the US financial system as well as blocking their access to property and interests within USA jurisdiction.
"We took these actions because China took delivery of 10 Sukhoi fighter aircraft, specifically Su-25s [sic], in December of 2017 - of course, after the CAATSA statute came into force", a senior Trump administration official said on Thursday.
Members of Congress, including many of Trump's fellow Republicans, who passed the sanctions bill almost unanimously, have repeatedly called on the administration to take a harder line against Moscow.
The US official said Washington had spent "an enormous amount of time" seeking to discourage prospective buyers of Russian arms.
Beijing's furious response comes amid a raging trade war kicked off by Washington.